Specifically, the subjects were exposed to significant short-term stress, as well as potential long-term trauma. For instance, Jane asks her parents to pay for her vacation to Australia. If participants questioned the procedure, the researcher would encourage them further. Twenty-four males students were selected to take on randomly assigned roles of prisoner or guard in a mock prison situated in the basement of the Stanford psychology building. [Online Lecture]. Norms That Influence The social norms at work in normative influence can be thought as the set of acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs governing a particular group or situation. Informational social influence is the change in opinions or behavior that occurs when we conform to people who we believe have accurate information. A number of factors are known to increase the likelihood of conformity within a group. It has been further defined as a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. In a control group with no pressure to conform, participants had an error rate of less 1%. These results demonstrate that participants were willing to obey an authority figure and administer extremely harmful (and potentially lethal) shocks. The experiment even affected Zimbardo himself, who, in his role as the superintendent, permitted the abuse to continue. Sometimes you may need to seek out experts, conform to the way others or a group are behaving, or look to some other source of information. People exhibit conformity when they change attitudes or behaviors to reflect a perceived norm. I think the prevention of moving onward into the performing stage of Tuckman’s stages is part of what makes Survivor so interesting. Later, we viewers often see interviews with that person, who will explain their actions or attitudes as responses to a situation. The guards enforced authoritarian measures and ultimately subjected some of the prisoners to psychological and physical torture. The participant would enter a room and sit at a table with several other people. I think one of the things that makes Survivor so interesting and drama-filled is the fact that, especially in the beginning, they force the tribes, or teams as I will call them here, to stay in the forming and storming stages of Tuckman’s developmental stages of groups. The research participant was told he was participating in a simple “perceptual” task. Group size also influenced levels of conformity such that smaller groups resulted in less conformity than larger groups. Research has identified a few common requirements that contribute to recognition of a group: interdependence, social interaction, perception as a group, commonality of purpose, and favoritism. The subject is more likely to comply with this change in cost since he or she feels like an agreement has already occurred. Information social influence occurs when people conform to peer views in an attempt to reach the correct answer for themselves; it is the desire to be correct. For example, group influence can often be useful in the context of work settings, team sports, and political activism. Applied Social Psychology: Understand and Addressing Social and Practical Problems (2nd ed.). Referent informational influence theory explains group polarization as conformity, through self‐categorization, to a local in‐group norm which is polarized as a result of the in‐group being located towards an extreme of the salient comparative context or social frame of reference. “Compliance” refers to a response, specifically a submission, made in reaction to an implicit or explicit request. (1932). social influence. Sherif suggested this was a reflection of how social norms develop in larger society. After the subject agrees to the initial cost, the requester increases the cost at the last moment. As I settled into watch, I realized how perfectly Survivor illustrates many of the concepts of teams and organizations. We can see how the producers manipulate the group development process, how the fundamental attribution error influences players, and how group decision-making concepts effect how the game plays out. This is normative social influence -- influence resulting in the desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. There is currently no universal description of what constitutes a group, though research has identified a few common requirements that contribute to recognition of a group: Individual behavior and decision making can be influenced by the presence of others. While scrolling through channels on the TV one evening this week, I stumbled across one of my favorite shows, Survivor. In his book, The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell discusses the way new ideas are transmitted by social influence. The larger the group, the higher the incidence of deindividuation, which is characterized by an individual relinquishing self-consciousness and control and doing what the group is doing. Sometimes people behave in ways just to gain approval from others, even if they don't necessarily believe in what they are doing. An internal (private) and external (public) change of behavior. When a person is in a situation where s/he is unsure of the correct way to behave, s/he will often look to others for cues concerning the correct behavior. For example, before Anna goes to ask for time off from her manager, Anthony, she does a little research and discovers that he enjoys golfing. Nazi Germany is often cited as a prime example of the negative potential of groupthink because a number of factors, such as shared illusions and rationalizations and a lack of individual accountability, allowed for a few powerful leaders to enlist many otherwise “normal” people in committing mass acts of violence. The Stanford prison experiment was a study, conducted by Philip Zimbardo at Stanford University in 1971, of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard and. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. An example of internalisation is if some… In the Stanford prison experiment, participants were selected to take on randomly assigned roles of prisoner or guard in a mock prison, and they adapted to their roles beyond the experimenter’s expectations. Several conditions must take place for groupthink to occur: the group must be isolated from outside influences;  loyalty must prevent individuals from raising controversial issues of alternative solutions; there must be a loss of individual creativity and independent thinking; and the group must experience the “illusion of invulnerability,” an inflated certainty that the right decision has been made. People join groups for a multitude of reasons, most frequently because membership satisfies a need of the individual. There is a crisis. of their own group to obtain and accept accurate information about reality. Example Answers for Social Influence: A Level Psychology, Paper 1, June 2019 (AQA) Exam technique advice. Milgram experiment setup: Illustration of the setup of a Milgram experiment. Deindividuation happens when a person lets go of self-consciousness and control and does what the group is doing, usually with negative goals or outcomes. Muzafer Sherif was interested in knowing how many people would change their opinions to bring them in line with the opinion of a group. Many of the prisoners passively accepted abuse and, at the request of the guards, readily harassed other prisoners who attempted to prevent it. The result of conformity due to informational social influence is normally private acceptance: real change in opinions on the part of the individual. According to Pennsylvania State University (2017), these are the stages where the teams get together and get to know one another politely and then begin to attempt to sort out their roles with much intragroup conflict, respectively. Other factors associated with conformity are culture, gender, age, and importance of stimuli. Often, a majority of a group will decide to work against a certain individual and, even if others disagree, they do not want to go against this majority group and make themselves a future enemy. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints. The result of conformity due to informational social influence is normally private acceptance: real change in opinions on the part of the individual. The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures (1963) was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram. Obedience, in human behavior, is a form of social influence. Higher levels of perceived prestige and closer proximity to the authority figure are associated with increased obedience. She says yes, and later he asks if he can stay the night. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people, in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an incorrect or deviant decision-making outcome. If contestants attributed behaviors appropriately, it is possible that alliances could be different and the entire game could proceed in an entirely new way. The Uprise of Media Violence and it’s Effects on Children, Developing a Solution for Alcoholism in Early Adulthood, Lesson 8: Breaking The Negative Self Fulfilling Prophecy. This is a perfect example of informational influence, where information from others provides a person more information about a social situation (Schneider et al., 2012). While we have learned and continued to learn from their results, they have been endlessly controversial. In Milgram’s first set of experiments, 65% of participants administered the full 450-volt shock, even though most were very uncomfortable doing so. In summary, social conformity is a type of social influence that results in a change of behavior or belief in order to fit in with a group. In addition to environmental factors, Zimbardo attributes many of the guards’ actions to deindividuation afforded by the authority position and even the anonymity of the uniforms. There are both positive and negative implications of group influence on individual behavior. For instance, men’s and women’s views of what the ideal body image is have changed over time. On the first day, each person perceived different amounts of movement, as they participated in the experiment individually. Explain how certain strategies and group attributes may influence compliance. Explain how certain motivators and factors may influence conformity. As viewers, we never get to see teams work seamlessly together, but we do get to see the repeated formation and conflicts that come with the initial stages of team development. When she sees Anthony next time, she starts out talking about her golfing trip last weekend, and later in the conversation she requests time off. Informational social influence (also called social proof) occurs most often when: The situation is ambiguous. What appears to happen in groups is that discussion leads to a significant shift in the position of the members to a more extreme position in the direction they were all already leaning. Organizational Life AND Teams. In psychology, conformity is defined as the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Social proof is a psychological and social phenomenon wherein people copy the actions of others in an attempt to undertake behavior in a given situation. An empirical test of the referent informational influence analysis of group polarization is reported. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains. Informational social influence leads to real, long-lasting changes in beliefs. Types of social influence on behavior is a very interesting and an important topic in social psychology. A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment. We believe that choosing the jacket was the right thing to do and that the crowd will lead us to the baggage carousel. An individual was asked to state which line, A, B, or C, matched the first line. We will discuss these more in detail below. Informational influence and descriptive norms Social psychology is primarily concerned with learning how others influence our thinking, emotions, and actions in the field of psychological research. In using the foot-in-the-door technique, the subject is asked to perform a small request, and after agreeing, a larger request is made. An example of normative social influence is peer pressure. When Asch had the confederates all choose the same obviously incorrect answer, participants also chose the wrong line 37% of the time. Informational influence refers to new information or arguments provided in a group discussion that change a group member’s attitudes, beliefs, or behavior. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. © 2021. Early attempts to explain the Holocaust had focused on the idea that there was something distinctive about German culture that had allowed the Holocaust to take place. Psychologists describe informational influence as following whatever work the crowd is doing, believing that they are a source of information. This is the deepest level of conformity were the beliefs of the group become part of the individual’s own belief system. Groupthink happens when group members, faced with an important choice, become so focused on making a smooth, quick decision that they overlook other, possibly more fruitful options. This is based on the social norm that people will return a favor when one is granted to them. While high levels of conformity can be detrimental, a certain amount of conformity is necessary and normal, and even essential for a community to function. Milgram’s senior-level psychology students hypothesized that only a very small fraction of participants (1%) would inflict maximum voltage. An empirical test of the referent informational influence analysis of group polarization is reported. WordPress. Ostrich Effect. Public responses, those that were spoken in the presence of the confederates, were associated with higher levels of conformity than private, written responses. The Holocaust resulted in the extermination of millions of Jews, Gypsies, and communists; it has prompted us to take a closer look at the roots of obedience—in part, so that tragedies such as this may never happen again. Otherwise, it was only halted after the participant had given the maximum 450-volt shock three times in a row. Groupshift is a phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position. Informational influence is fueled by wanting to know what’s right, whereas normative influence is motivated by wanting to get along. Obedience is a form of social influence that occurs when a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure. While there are many ways a group can influence behavior, we will focus on three key phenomena: groupthink, groupshift, and deindividuation. Following the Second World War—and in particular the Holocaust—psychologists set out to investigate the phenomenon of human obedience. There are two major motivators to conformity: normative influence and informational influence. Lesson 10: Overcoming the Fundamental Attribution Error, Lesson 12: COVID and How it Ended the Stigma of Online Dating. Conformity may result from either subtle, unconscious influences or direct and overt social pressure. The early majority is followed by a second group that Gladwell calls the late … Applied Social Psychology (ASP). A., & Coutts, L. M. (2012). Human behavior is extremely complex, and so there are always numerous variables to consider when interpreting such studies. I thought I enjoyed watching it before, but after having a more complete understanding of social psychology, it makes watching it even more interesting! The participant believed his role was randomly assigned. If the other members of the group gave an obviously incorrect response, the participant was more likely to also give an obviously incorrect response (A or B). There are a number of techniques used to gain compliance, including the foot-in-the-door technique, the door-in-the-face technique, low-balling, ingratiation, and the norm of reciprocity. Groups must be cohesive, insulated, lack an impartial leader, and homogenous, as well as be in a provocative, high stress situation, in order for groupthink to occur. They were then asked to estimate the amount it moved; however, there was no real movement. The participants adapted to their roles beyond the experimenter’s expectations. Powered by Social influence phenomena often are divided into conformity, compliance, and obedience categories. While conformity is often viewed as a negative characteristic in American culture, it is very common. Additionally, neither Milgram nor Zimbardo informed subjects ahead of time of the nature of their participation. It goes on to show us that even though individuals might consider themselves to possess qualities of uniqueness, when studied, their behavioral patterns are not very different from other individuals. Informational influence is likely to be stronger when a person is uncertain about the correct interpretation of reality and/or the correct behavior in a given context … Jenness, A. Because there was no actual movement, the number that the group agreed on was a direct result of group conformity. Social psychologists focus on how people construe or interpret situations and how these interpretations influence their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Ross & Nisbett, 1991). Then early adopters join in, followed by the early majority. However, the influence of groups on the individual can also generate negative behaviors. We also see a lot of examples of the fundamental attribution error in Survivor. This is the deepest level of conformity were the beliefs of the group become part of the individual’s own belief system. The influence physical appearance such as clothing has on the perception of authority is a different social psychological phenomenon, yet it is an important factor in informational influence. Typically the group is under a high level of pressure to make a decision, and it lacks an impartial leader. The request may be explicit (directly stated) or implicit (subtly implied); the target may or may not recognize that he or she is being urged to act in a particular way. Obedience is generally distinguished from compliance (behavior influenced by peers) and conformity (behavior intended to match that of the majority). Low-balling: Low-balling is a tactic frequently used by salesmen. Social psychologists view compliance as a means of social influence used to reach goals or attain social or personal gains. The term was coined by Robert Cialdini in his 1984 book Influence, and the concept is also known as informational social influence. 1 a). Pennsylvania State University. 1 a). Schneider, F. W., Gruman, J. After running these experiments, Milgram and Zimbardo concluded that the following factors affect obedience: The Milgram and Zimbardo experiments stand as dramatic demonstrations of the power of authority and other situational factors in human behavior. In the group, they are likely to make riskier decisions as the shared risk makes the individual risk seem to be less. This often means that they will go along with whatever the group is doing, whether it be rioting, looting, lynching, or engaging in cyberbullying. Factors that influence compliance include the following: In addition to these factors, the following techniques have been proven to effectively induce compliance from another party. As we see in the case of Survivor, these fundamental attribution errors play a major role in how contestants view one another and select alliance members. Instead of acting as individuals, people experiencing deindividuation become lost in a group. Start studying Social Psychology - Informational Social Influence. His initial experiment in 1951 was set up as follows. We have choices but do not know which to select. Conformity is the most common and pervasive form of social influence. In studying compliance, social psychologists aim to examine overt and subtle social influences and their relationship to compliance. On the other hand, situations in Survivor often occur where an individual is certain they will vote a certain way but then discover information from other group members that changes their perception of the situation, often leading to a change in their vote. 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