367 0 obj <> endobj Carotenoids are the category of natural tetraterpenoid compounds that give plants a variety of colors and are crucial for plant growth and fitness, and for human health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 0000144626 00000 n 0000005081 00000 n Understanding of carotenoid metabolism and accumulation in various plastids expands our view on the multifaceted regulation of carotenogenesis and facilitates our efforts toward developing nutrient-enriched food crops. 0000006698 00000 n 0000007599 00000 n 0000144691 00000 n Carotenoids that contain unsubstituted beta-ionone rings (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and gamma-carotene) have vitamin A activity (meaning that they can be converted to retinol). 0000220812 00000 n Plants use carotenoids as photosynthetic accessory pigments to absorb light. Of the many naturally occurring carotenoids, less than 50 play a light-harvesting role in photosynthetic organisms (e.g. Carotenoids are mainly C40 isoprenoids comprising a large family with more than 700 members that are widely distributed in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria (Khoo et al., 2011). In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the genes and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism and describe recent progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation. 0000005525 00000 n 0000187551 00000 n Despite being present at low levels, carotenoids are essential for etioplast formation and function. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2014.12.007. Carotenoids are a group of natural tetraterpenoid pigments distributed widely in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria. 0000058571 00000 n created by plants to help them absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy Review Metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants Giovanni Giuliano1, Raffaela Tavazza1, Gianfranco Diretto1, Peter Beyer2 and Mark A. Taylor3 1 Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l’Energia e l’Ambiente (ENEA), Casaccia Research Center, PO Box 2400, 00123 S.M. 0000006725 00000 n continuous metabolic flux through the carotenogenic pathway occurs in etioplasts. However, carotenoids are vital antioxidants for buffering of singlet oxygen, dissipation of excess light energy through non-photochemical quenching, and harvesting light energy and channeling to the photosystem. 0000078652 00000 n The importance of the specific location of carotenoid enzyme metabolons and plastid types as well as of carotenoid-derived signals is discussed. In plants, they perform a multitude of functions involving the photosynthetic apparatus, photoprotection, and precursors to phytohormones such as ABA and strigolactones ( Niyogi, 2000 ; Cazzonelli and Pogson, 2010 ). These pigments produce the bright yellow, red, and orange colors in plants, vegetables, and fruits. 0000199344 00000 n 0000147570 00000 n Approximately 600 unique carotenoids can be found in plant species, as well as select species of algae and fungi. 0000148569 00000 n 0000003656 00000 n 0000002504 00000 n Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. 0000009137 00000 n plants and several have been shown to be potent antioxidant nutrients. As isoprenoids, carotenoid compounds originate in the plast… Carotenoids, in the early stages of the emergence of single-celled photosynthetic organisms, are probably been used for light harvesting at wavelengths different from those covered by chlorophyll. Data on the presence of the metabolic syndrome, based on Inter- 0000058308 00000 n Because their presence is so obvious, carotenoids were some of the earliest studied phytochemicals . By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 0000015432 00000 n 0000020370 00000 n 0000021658 00000 n 0000011542 00000 n Many flowers, fruits, and roots owe their vivid orange, yellow, and red hues to carotenoids. 0000019137 00000 n Carotenoids are derived from 4 terpenes, including totally 40 carbon atoms. Carotenoids are a large group of natural pigments, ranging from red, to orange, to yellow colors. 0000003375 00000 n <<7DC2CFA076A6954C87705EEF0B16C543>]/Prev 643886>> Of the non-enzymatic antioxidants, carotenoids have received relatively little attention in turfgrass research. The oxidative cleavage of carotenoids, catalyzed by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), gives rise ... plants, and bacteria. For example, provitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene) are the precursors of vitamin A, which plays a role in the prevention of blindness, xerophthalmia, and premature death. Since the landmark review paper by Cunningham and Gantt , major discoveries have been made in the characterization of carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation in plants (for the latest updates, see [5,6]; and Figure 1 for a compressed version of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway). Carotenoids have two important roles in photosynthetic organisms. 0000014738 00000 n 0000198964 00000 n 0000013995 00000 n 0000069502 00000 n 0000169473 00000 n 0000104618 00000 n Carotenoids serve two key roles in plants and algae: they absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis, and they provide photoprotection via non-photochemical quenching. 0000198586 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000010508 00000 n 0000025168 00000 n Carotenoids have two important functions in plants. 0000188578 00000 n 446 0 obj <>stream plants; protists such as the human parasites Plasmodium and Toxoplasma as well as the The beneficial role of carotenoids in maintaining human health, their important role in plant photo protection and their versatile usage ... Metabolic engineering in crop plants Even though conventional plant breeding approaches have increased the productivity successfully, the advantages of … 0000059093 00000 n In plants, carotenoids can occur in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. 0000013171 00000 n First, they act as accessory light‐harvesting pigments, effectively extending the range of light absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. 0000004386 00000 n However, carotenoids are vital antioxidants for buffering of singlet oxygen, dissipation of excess light energy through non-photochemical quenching, and harvesting light energy and channeling to the photosystem. For example, provitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene) are the precursors of vitamin A, which plays a role in the prevention of blindness, xerophthalmia, and premature death.9,10 0000011987 00000 n Greater emphasis on carotenoids in turfgrass research could �\�A���I���!���&�{��2e1^`�ʆ3�2�>gu`������a*�?c �F_ƭ�L>L�Y�X*X�X���e��eϠ����� �{qN�,�5wR��OTx1�18qg�b�tCe`/�S���S�v�1ccc. Transcriptome analysis and metabolic profiling reveal the key role of carotenoids in the petal coloration of Liriodendron tulipifera Liriodendron tulipifera, also known as tuliptree, is a popular ornamental horticultural plant with extraordinary tulip-shaped flowers characterized by … 0000197965 00000 n Carotenes are carotenoids with molecules that are unoxygenated, such as α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene. 0000188097 00000 n The pigments regulate the flow of energy in the photosynthetic system by either absorbing light energy for photosynthesis, or conferring photoprotection by removing excess energy to minimize damage to plant cells or membranes. Understanding of carotenoid metabolism and accumulation in various plastids expands our view on the multifaceted regulation of carotenogenesis and facilitates our efforts toward developing nutrient-enriched food crops. 9,10 0000002783 00000 n The major carote… Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 0000013531 00000 n 0000170223 00000 n The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between metabolic syndrome status and major serum carotenoids in adult Australians. 0000148138 00000 n 0000078405 00000 n Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Cell Press, an imprint of Elsevier Inc., on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS. 0000258254 00000 n Xanthophylls are carotenoids with molecules containing oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin. 0000002819 00000 n startxref carotenoids have received relatively little attention in turfgrass research. 0000065017 00000 n 0000187800 00000 n ����#cA�-e��Rڵ�66=��3�pX�R=`�ד�WUx�ꚉ�:�����Ž�-Jf�.=#��֪�5}�r���ls���m^����#���|�Kسj�)�e S�v�d�� TeLv���V1��`+���.�[�L5*��^�5��:�k���@�������0 s7{�*�F�1�4 �il@����]���|�8 0000144784 00000 n Furthermore, some carotenoids are important nutrients and others exhibit protective effects against several diseases. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Molecular Plant. Clearly, plastids play a central role in governing carotenogenic activity, carotenoid stability, and pigment diversity. This is demonstrated by phytoene accumulation when PDS activity is disrupted by plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) dysfunction in etiolated seedlings (Kambakam et al., 2016). 0000002725 00000 n The core carotenoid pathway is conserved in most plant species although some plants accumulate special and rare carotenoids via unique biosynthetic routes. 0000010939 00000 n They are colorants and critical components of the human diet as antioxidants and provitamin A. 0000014123 00000 n In plants, carotenoids are derived from isoprenoid precursors from the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway located in plastids. 0000006170 00000 n Clearly, plastids play a central role in governing carotenogenic activity, carotenoid stability, and pigment diversity. Like antioxidants, carotenoids protect cellular damage in your body, which prevents the onset of premature aging along with chronic diseases. 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