In doing so, individuals support the group's beliefs while still presenting themselves as admirable group "leaders". [20] The study found that situations that normally favor the more risky alternative increased risky shifts. He observed a phenomenon known as “risky shift”, which appeared to show that when placed in a group setting, individuals were prepared to take riskier decisions than those they might have taken as … In 1979, Charles Lord, Lee Ross and Mark Lepper[9] performed a study in which they selected two groups of people, one group strongly in favor of capital punishment, the other strongly opposed. Lord et al. [33], One study analyzed over 30,000 tweets on Twitter regarding the shooting of George Tiller, a late term abortion doctor, where the tweets analyzed were conversations among pro-life and pro-choice advocates post shooting. Later, both the pro- and anti-capital punishment people were put into small groups and shown one of two cards, each containing a statement about the results of a research project written on it. In their experiment, participants gave pre-test, post-test, and group consensus recommendations on three choice dilemma item-types (risky, neutral, or cautious). Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. RESULTS. Later, they would be asked to join a group to reassess their choices. In contrast to social comparison theory and persuasive argumentation theory, the self-categorization model maintains that inter-group categorization processes are the cause of group polarization [29]. [38] Researchers have suggested, for instance, that ethnic conflict exacerbates group polarization by enhancing identification with the ingroup and hostility towards the outgroup. These results are noteworthy because they indicate that even trained, professional decision-makers are subject to the influences of group polarization.[37]. [29] The results of the study supported their hypothesis in that participants converged on a norm polarized toward risk on risky items and toward caution on cautious items. Almost as soon as the phenomenon of group polarization was discovered, a number of theories were offered to help explain and account for it. Choice shifts are mainly explained by largely differing human values and how highly these values are held by an individual. [28] Accordingly, proponents of the self-categorization model hold that group polarization occurs because individuals identify with a particular group and conform to a prototypical group position that is more extreme than the group mean. [4] Furthermore, research suggests that it is not simply the sharing of information that predicts group polarization. A comparison of individual and group decisions involving risk. [3] Similarly, studies have shown that after deliberating together, mock jury members often decided on punitive damage awards that were either larger or smaller than the amount any individual juror had favored prior to deliberation. [40], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Dynamic Debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter", "Disagreement, Dogmatism, and Belief Polarization", "Risky and cautious shifts in group decisions: the influence of widely held values", "Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: Self-categorization and the nature of norm formation, conformity and group polarization", "Deliberative Trouble? Why Group Polarization Happens. Participants were then asked to estimate the probability that a certain choice would be of benefit or risk to the individual being discussed. our multi-group context, one can obtain an axiomatically characterized nat-ural extension of the income polarization index presented in DER. In 8 of the 10 pairs, murder rates were higher in the state with capital punishment. Group polarization is the phenomenon that when placed in group situations, people will make decisions and form opinions to more of an extreme than when they are in individual situations. Indicated by shifts in the mean value, initial studies using this method revealed that group decisions tended to be relatively riskier than those that were made by individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Group polarization theories explore the tendency of people in groups to shift their opinions toward the extreme pole of popular opinion. A split into opposing factions that fail to reach an agreement b. The process of characterizing a social polarization index using extensions of the axioms presented in DER to the multi-group case is not straight-forward. In surveys carried in 2014, Pew researchers found that 36 percent of Republicans and 27 percent of Democrats responded that the opposing … The researchers again asked people about the strength of their beliefs about the deterrence effect of the death penalty, and, this time, also asked them about the effect that the research had had on their attitudes. Rather, the amount of information and persuasiveness of the arguments mediate the level of polarization experienced. For example, students who do not belong to fraternities and sororities tend to be more liberal politically, and this difference increases over the course of their college careers. Result. asked Apr 6, 2017 in Psychology by Whelma. Stoner, J. 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